Architecture of the Smart Energy Systems Laboratory


Real-Time Energy System Emulator

This system consists of two elements namely the Real-Time Digital Simulator and the Power Linear Amplifier. The Real-Time Digital Simulator based on Opal-RT technology is implementing a large scale energy network including systems using the multi-domain physics approach. This means that not only the electrical network and system is captured but also other systems such as thermal, mechanical, etc. The main goal for this Real-Time simulator is to capture the electrical system from the transmission level (TSO) down to low voltage distribution grids (DSO) as well as the district heating networks. Other energy systems such as gas networks and transportation systems can also be represented. The Opal-RT is able to simulate up to 10000 three-phase buses in RMS and 600 nodes in EMT. Implementation of all models is based on Matlab/Simulink. The 3-phase voltages measured in a given point in the distribution network are applied to the 50 kVA AC/DC fully regenerative Power Linear Amplifier that is supplying the physical components i.e. Dispersed Energy Resource, Flexible Load as they are part of the larger system. The three phase currents are fed in back to the Real-Time Digital Simulator.

Dispersed Energy Resource

A fully regenerative four quadrant power converter is emulating the dispersed generation unit. It has ±20kW/±10kVAR capability and it is used to mimic characteristics of a small wind turbine, a PV systems or energy storage. Implementation of models as well as controls is done using Matlab/Simulink on a 1103 dSpace system. This emulator is controllable remotely via the internal high-speed communication network.

Flexible Load

A 4.5 kW Controllable AC/DC Load is used to mimic the behavior of loads in a typical household. Implementation of models as well as controls is done using Matlab/Simulink. This system is receiving set-points from hierarchical control structure.

ICT Layer

It is the ICT backbone for the setup and aims to emulate different technologies and topologies for the communication networks. A dedicated server is used to mimic the characteristics of different communication networks such as 3G, LTE, xDSL etc. A dedicated server is used for stochastic traffic modelling and trace based traffic generation. The network control including mapping GIS data to communication network as well as Offline and Online network reconfiguration is done from a Visualization server.

Control Layers

A dedicated platform for demand response is used to host functionalities related to aggregation and control of large scale flexible loads in distribution networks. A dedicated industrial controller is used to host typical control functions in primary substations in medium voltage grids. It is also offering the possibility to implement and verify new control and operational strategies for components in medium voltage networks such as voltage control, loss minimization, etc. This industrial controller is getting information from the downstream assets placed in medium and low voltage networks. A dedicated industrial controller is used to host new control functionalities in secondary substations (medium to low voltage). This platform offers the possibility to implement and verify new control and operational strategies for flexible assets in low voltage networks such as voltage control along the low voltage feeders, aggregation of data from smart meters, etc. An industrial controller is hosting typical control functionalities implemented in renewable based generation plants such as wind or PV. Implementation of controls in all platforms is done using Matlab/Simulink. 

Smart Meters

Different smart meter technologies are providing power and energy consumption from the physical assets to the upper hierarchical control levels.

New components/actors can easily be added to this system.