PROJECT TITLE: CFD based Optimization of Electric Vehicles Battery Pack Thermal Management
PhD period: 2016.10.01 - 2019.09.30. (has been prolonged till 2020.03.31)
Section: Fluid Mechanics and Combustion
Research Programme: Battery Storage Systems
Supervisor: Erik Schaltz
Co-Supervisor: Søren Knudsen Kær
Funding: National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC).
The problem of air pollution and increasing emission of carbon dioxide in the world in recent years has been in the news and concerns of citizens of megacities. From the society perspective air pollution which produces NOx and Carbon Dioxide is a problem that has existed in various cities of the world. Anywhere that has managed to reduce air pollution and its control. In other words, they have worked on process and targeted programs which contribute to renewable energy development. Limited fossil fuels resources and the problems caused by greenhouse gas emissions is obvious to everyone and it is necessary to pay more attention to renewable energy. With the development of clean energies, emissions of carbon dioxide will be controlled. Special capacity for economic development, Particularly in the areas of business and employment Supply and energy security , Protect the environment and reduce air pollution are three important advantages of Renewable energy sources. The unique status of renewable energy in reducing air pollution and tackle climate change causes to develop renewable energies to reduce the risks of climate change.
The more we use combustion engines the more we have vehicle emissions which contribute to air pollution. for reduction of dangerous gasses in cars , using green vehicles, such as electric vehicles is inevitable .To reduce NOx and Carbon Dioxide which are greenhouse gasses and global warming factor, renewable transportation is needed and in consequence the need for electrification of the transportation sector. Easy Charging, Low maintenance costs, are some of the advantages of these vehicles and also they decrease dependence on oil and so their advantages greatly outweigh their disadvantages.
Development of electronic devices such as mobile phones and laptops has increased the demand for rechargeable batteries, especially lithium-ion batteries. In the meantime, among other types of batteries, lithium-ion batteries have shown better performance and efficiency and has the highest production rate among other types of batteries.
Thermal problems related to lithium-ion batteries have restricted their usage for high energy applications. Since a single cell from the battery pack, does not provide a lot of power and energy, thus, for high-power applications, such as electric vehicles, a large number of the cells should have come together in series and parallel to provide sufficient power to move the car.
Battery temperature rise is caused by electrochemical reactions. If the battery temperature is not properly controlled, then it will cause shortening of its lifespan, faster capacity reduction or even in severe cases, might cause battery explosion. For commercial high-energy applications, a proper battery thermal management allows to overcome problems related to heat production and improves significantly the performance of the battery.
In this research, in order to demonstrate the effect of different flow distribution in coolant channel and with a different coolant fluid, a CFD modeling will be used and the results will be compared to experimental results by considering different battery shapes and models for flow distribution in coolant channel and also different conventional coolant fluids. Moreover, for each item, the fluid pressure drop in the collection and flow distribution will be calculated and required a fan or pump power to drive the fluid will be calculated and compared to experimental results. Although the fluids heat capacity is very important coefficient, the costs related to pressure drop and power or fan or pump power to drive the fluid and also less complexity in design and low cost and weight should be considered, and also simpler control mechanism should be considered.
Publications in journals and conference papers may be found at VBN.